The January meeting of the Lincoln Photography Club will be held at the Lincoln County Library two blocks west of the Court Square in Lincolnton, NC, on Monday, January 25, at 7:00 pm. Photographer Heather Rontti will present a program on portrait photography.
Members are reminded to bring some matted photographs for display in the library in Denver. Smaller sizes (4 x 6 or 5 x 7) are needed in addition to the usual 8 x 10.


The December meeting for the Lincoln Photography Club will be next week - Monday, December 14th at the Cultural Center in Lincolnton. Bring a dish to share, finger foods/pick-ups. Just a time to enjoy and get to know each other. Spouses/significant others are welcome to join us. We will be announcing the winners for our first photo contest that is currently on display at the library.
Call me if you have any questions.


Hi, everyone,
Don't forget that Monday (23rd) is our monthly meeting. This month is our contest. If you have paid your dues, there is no cost to enter. However, if you have not paid, it will cost $5.00. We are limiting the contest to just one photo per person and requesting that the photo be 8 X 10 matted (matted because the library IS letting us display our contest photos on the wall in the hallway again). We all will be judging during the meeting. I will have ballot type sheets made up for judging based on a rating scale in 5 categories: Focus; Lighting; Composition; Color/Quality; and Aesthetics. I will go over these categories prior to judging to explain in more detail. There is no particular theme for the contest.
I will also have sign-up sheets for food, etc. for our December meeting. As many of you know, we will be meeting on December 14th at the Cultural Center in Lincolnton for a social time and announcement of the photo contest winners. We will all contribute by bringing pick-up type foods. Please plan to participate since this will be our only meeting in December.
If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me by email or phone (980) 241-0188.
Judy Broesder


Meeting - November 23, 2009

1. Thanksgiving

2. Turkey

3. Thankful

4. Sunset

5. Hay

6. Kitchen

7. Pet

8. Rocking Chair

9. Veteran

10. Blue


The Lincoln Photography Club will meet from 7:00 - 8:00 PM on Monday, October 26, 2009. The meeting place is the Multi-Purpose Room of the Charles R. Jonas Library, located at 306 W. Main Street, Lincolnton, NC. For more information, call Judy Broesder at (980) 241-0188.


Hart Square
(always the fourth Saturday in October, rain or shine)

Saturday, October 24, 2009
10:00 AM to 5:00 PM
Tickets are $25.00 per person

**Groups of 15 or more**
may purchase tickets in advance from
Sept. 1 - Sept. 15, by calling (828) 322-2990

--Tickets for the General Public--
On sale at 9:00 AM, Thursday, October 1, 2009,
at the Catawba County Museum of History or call (828)-465-0383

Please note that tickets are on a first come, first serve basis. No tickets will be held in reserve,
and no general admission tickets will be sold in advance of October 1, 2009.

For more than thirty years, Dr. Robert Hart of Hickory has rescued and restored Carolina life of the nineteenth century, recreating an entire village, Hart Square—the largest collection of original historic log buildings in the United States.

Each year on the fourth Saturday in October, Dr. and Mrs. Hart open this restoration project to the public. Dating from 1782 to 1873, the seventy log structures—chapels, barns, houses, shops, and more—are all furnished, and around 220 volunteer artisans demonstrate the period techniques of flax breaking and hackling, spinning, weaving, herb dying, open-hearth cooking, broom and shoe making, shingle riving, wheelwrighting, tinsmithing, and moonshining.

Visitors from across the country attend the one-day event, some inspired by the three-part series The 1840 Carolina Village narrated by the late Shelby Foote that airs on PBS stations. Tickets ($25 each) go on sale (9:00 am) on the 1st of October. They may be purchased in person at the Catawba County Museum of History in Newton or over the phone, with a credit card, at 828.465.0383. Directions are included with the tickets, which we mail to you. View a gallery of Hart Square.

For further reading, see the October 2005 article "Cabin Fever" in Our State magazine: 1, 2, 3.



September 28, 2009 MEETING


ATTENDING: Jon Arrowood, Steve Bailey (first time visitor), Kenny Brackett, Judy Broesder, Stan Broesder, Richie Calloway, Jessica Cook, LeAnne Fritts (first time visitor), Kathy Goodson, Roger Goodson, David Hopkins, Russell Hull, Robin Johnson (first time visitor), Kathy Lowery (first time visitor), Charles Mize, Ronald Paulley (first time visitor), Mike Payne (first time visitor) and son, Gary Somers (first time visitor). Janice Still


CALL TO ORDER: President Judy Broesder called the meeting to order at 7:00.

MEMBERSHIP: Attendants were reminded to join the club if they would like. Membership dues go to pay for the rental of room at library, any copies that need to be made for the club and towards eventually buying our own club projector.


DISCUSSION: We discussed the upcoming club photo contest. Each member may submit one 8 x 10 photo on any subject. Photo does not need to be framed. Optional if matted or not. No name on photo please. These will not be displayed as we will be judging these ourselves during the November meeting. Cost to members is free, non-members will be $5. There will be a category for novice and advanced. A prize of $25 will be awarded for the best photo in each group. All club members will be allowed to vote on the photos using a printed ballot with a scale of 1-5 in 5 categories including Focus – lighting – composition – Color/quality aesthetics.

Later on we may sponsor an open competition.

December Meeting will be a social. Bring a cover dish…December 14th . This cannot be held at the library….Kathy Goodson to check on the solarium at the Lincoln Cultural Center.

We also discussed fundraising ideas.:

· note cards with photographs made by the club

· Children’s ID cards

· photographs of local landmarks


EXHIBITION: Many positive comments were given about the photos displayed. The library folks said we could display again soon.



1. leaves

2. pumpkins

3. spooky

4. shadows

5. gold

6. satisfaction

7. wagon

8. panoramic

9. elderly person

10. reflection


PROGRAM: The program this month (after we finally got the computer to talk with the projector) was sharing of our scavenger hunt photos.

Respectfully submitted

Kathy Goodson

Minutes of August Meeting



Amended Notes

Attendance: Charles Mize, Libby Mize, Heather Rontti, Janice Still, Kathy Goodson, David Hopkins, Jon Arrowood, Roger Goodson, Judy Holland,

Visitors Kenny Brackett, Richie Calloway, Jon O'Brien, Louanne Neal

CALL TO ORDER: In the absence of President Judy Broesder, Kathy Goodson called the meeting to order. A review of last month’s minutes was covered for the members who were absent as well as several visitors. Members were reminded to think about whether the club will hold photo competitions.

MEMBERSHIP: Jon Arrowood,Judy Holland ,Roger Goodson and David Hopkins officially joined the club tonight. Please encourage others to join. Members can be beginners or experience photographers. Welcome to our visitors, Kenny Brackett, Richie Calloway, Jon O'Brien, Louanne Neal

DISCUSSION: Several photography courses and opportunities were shared including the following:

Jon Arrowood is teaching a Basics of Photography with the Arts Council.

Basics of Photography

Dates: October 3, 2009

Times: 9:30 am – 2:30 pm

Location: Lincoln Cultural Center


CVTC is offering a Nature Photography Class starting in October

EXHIBITION: Members turned in photos for exhibit in the library. See list at the end of the notes. If there are any errors please let Judy or Kathy know.

SEPTEMBER SCAVENGER HUNT: The club members suggested the following topics for pictures in August:

  1. Orange
  2. Spiders
  3. People In Uniform
  4. Hat
  5. Waterfall
  6. Football
  7. Apple
  8. Glass
  9. Musical
  10. Determination

SHARING THE JULY SCAVENGER HUNT: Due to a missing connector we viewed the club member’s scavenger hunt photos on a laptop. Then we shared our prints we brought for display.

During the sharing time several members shared companies where prints could be made as well as a source for mats with sleeves.

The meeting ended with members turning in their photos for the exhibit. Kathy, Roger, Janice and Heather hung the photos. Please go by and see them. Judy will try to get name cards printed and hung as soon as possible.

Photos to be Exhibited:

Charles F. Mize

A Dandy Dandelion

Sweet Nectar

Above the Brink

Judy Broesder

Charlotte Night Lights

In Constant Change

Amongst Friends

The Old Grist Mill

Wilma J. Still

Grand Canyon

Sunset at Lake Powell

Bryce Canyon

Golden Beauty

Balanced Rocks

Navaho Bridge

Ho Dos

Utah Sky

Kathy Goodson

Red Sunset at Oak Island

Peony in the Rain

Baby Blue Eyes

Bird on Walkway

Roger Goodson

Okra Bloom

Red Bug Club

Butterfly Breakfast

Perfect Model

Heather Rontti


Bridges of Manhattan

Lady Liberty

View from Grand Central

Jon Arrowood

Tobacco Barn

Angel Oak

Libby Mize

Duck Wake

Maid of the Mist

Easter Egg Hunt Treasure

David Hopkins


Base of High Falls DuPont State Park

Rhododendron in Softlight


Photography by the members of the Lincoln Photography Club being exhibited in the Charles R. Jonas Library through the month of September, 2009


Club members are invited to post photos to the Lincoln Photography Club blogsite. Email photo with location, date, and photographer to libby324@charter.net.
Viewers, Please note: Click on the pictures to see them in greater detail.


Information for club members:

Some of the websites discussed at the August 24th meeting were:

For photo printing - www.nationsphotolab.com and www.mpix.com

For mats and supplies - www.goldenstateart.com

Also, for reference to the class I'm going to be teaching, folks can visit either:

the Arts Council website - www.artslincolnnc.org

or, my website - www.inhisimagenc.com

If there's anything else, let me know.

Regards, and good shooting,
Jon J. Arrowood


Official Club year begins in July.
Individual: $36 yr/ $18 for 6 months
Couple: $60 yr/ $30 for 6 months
Full time student (College or high school): $18 yr/ $9 for 6 months


Saturday, August 29, 9 AM - 4 PM

4th Annual Grape Stomp at Woodmill Winery, Vale, NC

Go to www.woodmillwinery.com for directions.

Up to 50 vendors including photography, arts and crafts, pottery, wood turning, mertal works, nursery stock, jewelry, and more!

Two performances by Lincoln Squares Square Dance Troupe

DJ Darin Hemly will be Master of Ceremonies

Two performances by Bluegrass/Gospel recording artists Darrin Aldridge and Brooke Justice

Kid Zone featuring face painting and inflatables

Horse & Carriage Rides, Grape Stomping, Food, Music, Entertainment!

Free Admission! Free Parking!

Bring your camera and your unique grape-stomping technique!


ATTENDANCE: Judy Broesder, Stan Broesder, Charles Mize, Libby Mize, Heather Rontti, Janice Still

OFFICERS: Officers elected at the last meeting were President - Judy Broesder ; Vice President/ President-Elect - Joe Hughes; Secretary - Kathy Goodson; and Treasurer - Janice Still. Joe Hughes has asked that he be replaced as Vice President/ President-Elect. Judy has contacted another member of the Steering Committee about replacing Joe, but she has not received a response. In the absence of Secretary Kathy Goodson, the minutes are being taken by Libby Mize.

MEMBERSHIP: President Judy Broesder and Treasurer Janice Still have opened a club checking account. The opening balance is $216.00. There are eight dues-paid members at this time: the six persons in attendance plus Kathy Goodson and Russell Hull. Many others have shown interest and perhaps will be able to attend the meetings after the summer.

EXHIBITION: The Lincoln Photography Club will exhibit photographs in the entrance hallway of the Charles R. Jonas Library in Lincolnton during the month of September. Each dues-paying member may exhibit 2 or 3 photographs. The photos – no larger than 8” x 10” - should be matted, but not framed. There was discussion on the best way to hang the photographs on the library wall, including nails in the metal strips, paper clips and pushpins, removable plastic hooks, and two-piece hook and eye fasteners. Members must bring their matted photographs to the August 24 meeting of the Photography Club, and these mounting suggestions can be tested at this time. There will be a sign indicating that the photos were taken by members of the Lincoln Photography Club. Since the display will be up during the library’s annual book sale during the Lincoln County Apple Festival, the public will be made aware of the club.

COMPETITIONS: Judy reminded the group of her e-mail about the Catawba Valley Camera Club’s Image-ination Competition. Information is on the club’s blog,
www.lincolnphotographyclub.blogspot.com. This photo competition is open to the public. This club has a monthly contest on an assigned subject, without prizes. Then they have a yearly contest for members, with prizes. Our club will decide in September the direction our club will go in regards to sponsoring competitions among ourselves or for the public.

AUGUST SCAVENGER HUNT: The club members suggested the following topics for pictures in August:
(1) VEGETABLE xxxxxx(4) OLD BUILDING xxxxx(7) ROCKSxxxxxx
(2) FRUIT xxxxxxxxxxx(5) A SIGN xxxxxxxxxxxx(8) CLOUDS

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (10) FRUSTRATION

SHARING THE JULY SCAVENGER HUNT: The last topic, “frustration,” was applied to a contrary laptop.
The club members took their flash drives to the library to share their scavenger hunt photos. It was fun to see the various interpretations of the month’s topic and the talent of our fellow members.

RECRUITING NEW MEMBERS: Invite people taking pictures to join the club. Put the announcement of club meetings in the newspaper. Call those who have attended and remind about the next meeting. Judy has had cards printed with her name and the club information. We can distribute some of her cards or make our own. Tell people about Flickr site and blog site. Be proactive about the club.


"Life in the Garden" - First Place Award-winning photo by Kathy Goodson published in Carolina Gardener Magazine in their June and July magazines. The magazine's website is www.carolinagardener.com/gallery/photocontest09.php.


Note from Kathy:
I have registered for the Nature Photo Class at CVCC this fall (the same one David took.) It meets on Thursdays starting October 8 through December 3 from 6 - 8 PM. Contact Cheri Toney at 828-327-7000 for more info and registration forms. Cost is $65.


Information from Kathy Goodson: There is a photo contest sponsored by NC Wildlife Magazine that club members may want to enter. Entries are submitted online. Deadline is September 15. Categories are Birds; Mammals; Reptiles and Amphibians; Invertebrates; Peaks, Valleys, and Plains; Wild Plants; Outdoor Recreation; Animal Behavior; Youth Photographer, 13-17; Youth Photographer, 12 and Under. There are cash prizes. Details are on the magazine's website -www.ncwildlife.org/contest/index.htm.


Hi everyone,
I hope your summer continues to go well!
Our monthly meeting of the Photography club is scheduled for Monday evening (July 27th) at 7:00pm in the Library. Again, this meeting will be more relaxed with a time to share information and photos.
Charles is going to bring the projector, so if you have photos you'd like to share (particularly, the scavenger hunt photos), but don't want to print them out, just bring your flashdrive, and we'll be able to share them on the screen.
We will also discuss the upcoming club photography exhibit in the library. The director told me we can use the walls in the lobby and hall for exhibiting the photos, and gave us the month of September for display. At this point, we will collect 2 or 3 photos per club member (member = dues paid).
I'm still working on the logistics of hanging the photos. Please have the photos matted but not framed, and a maximum photo size of 8 x 10. The deadline for submitting photos will be the night of our August meeting (August 24th). There is no theme for this exhibit, just choose 2 or 3 of your favorite photos.
Last month we voted on officers: President - Judy Broesder; Secretary - Kathy Goodson; Treasurer - Janice Still and President Elect/VP - position open (Joe Hughes had to withdraw). We will discuss this position at the meeting also. Janice is collecting dues.
Again, dues are as follows: $36 per year per person or $18 for six months; $60 per couple per year or $30 for six months; and $18 per year per full-time student (high school or college) or $9 for six months. Our club year is running from July '09 to June '10.
Hope to see you all there. If you have any questions, feel free to email me or call: 980-241-0188

IMAGE - INATION Competition

Celebrating 62 Years - the Catawba Valley Camera Club presents
Image*ination Catawba Valley Camera Club 3rd Annual Photo Competition
in conjunction with the Hickory Museum of Art
Entry Deadline
Saturday, November 14, 2009
Winners will be displayed at the Hickory Museum of Art
during January and February beginning Friday, January 8, 2010.
For more information, Entry Rules, and Forms
visit the Catawba County Camera Club website at
Sponsors ASG Security Wink & Dennis Gaines Catawba Valley Medical Center Graystone Ophthalmology Associates, P.A. Charles M. Lail, Dentist Huntington House Inc. David Shawn Clark, Attorney at Law Viewmont Camera Elite Properties Inc.

Entry Form for Image-ination

Entry No.
To be assigned by Competition Committee

Please complete one entry form for each photograph entered (two photos per entry allowed).
Send form(s), entry, and $10.00 entry fee to Catawba Valley Camera Club, c/o Viewmont Camera, Inc.,
2155 North Center Street, Hickory, NC 28601.
Make check payable to Catawba Valley Camera Club.
Entry Deadline: November 14, 2009

Name Age (if youth entrant)

Address City, State, Zip

Phone E-mail Address

Title of Photograph Date Photograph Taken

Description of Photograph

Division (check one): o Amateur Adult o Youth (Age 13 – 17)

o Please return my photographs. I have included self-addressed, stamped envelopes

How did you hear about the competition?

o Newspaper o Radio o Octoberfest o From club member o Other

My signature below indicates that I have read and understand the entry rules of this competition and the images I have submitted are my original work.

By signing below I give permission for any photographs of my artwork on display at the Hickory Museum of Art (HMA) to be used for publicity purposes- including, but not limited to, media coverage of the exhibition Image*ination- and release HMA and Catawba Valley Camera Club (CVCC) from liability and demands for compensation, award or other consideration whatsoever arising from or related to the appearance in such material. HMA and CVCC will not use/reproduce the image in merchandise, for the collection, or for any other direct sale. All effort will be made to contact the artist before the image is used in any publicity.

Signature______________________________________ Date______________

By signing below I give permission for any photographs of myself taken during in conjunction with the exhibition Image*ination at the Hickory Museum of Art to be used for publicity purposes- including media coverage- and release HMA and CVCC from liability and demands for compensation, award or other consideration whatsoever arising from or related to the appearance in such material.

Signature______________________________________ Date______________

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
For Official Use Only
Entry No. Division

Entrant’s Name

Title of Photograph Date of Photograph

Winner: o Best of Show o 1st Place o 2nd Place o 3rd Place o Honorable Mention


Photograph of Angel Oak by Jon J. Arrowood


HP Take Better Photos
Digital Photography Tips and Ideas


Hey everybody,
This is Joe Hughes from the Photography Club. I'd like to invite you all to submit your photos to www.gastonlincolnweekly.com for consideration in the Photo Of The Week section of this new web magazine. Each week, one photo will be featured as the Photo Of The Week on the site's home page, and can be linked to the photographer's personal web site, myspace, facebook page, or flickr photostream. We are working hard to get the site off the ground, and we would love to feature your photos. We can only feature one per week, so don't wait. Get your photo to us for consideration as soon as possible. Send submissions to editor@gastonlincolnweekly.com for consideration. Maximum file size is 3mb.
Photos must be family friendly. No nudity, profanity, or otherwise questionable materials will be considered. Photos may be edited for size constraints to fit the page and keep loading times low. Photographer maintains rights to photo, but grants Gaston Lincoln Weekly a limited license to show photo for the time period specified on the front page, and to maintain a low quality archive photo on an archive page.You must agree to the above terms to be considered. Submission of a photo indicates you agree to the terms as outlined above.




The Lincoln Photography Club met at 3:30 pm Saturday afternoon, April 4, to visit the Madison-Derr Furnace off Otis Dellinger Road in the Pumpkin Center area of Lincoln County. You may learn more about the historic iron furnace at http://www.lincolncountyhistory.com/.
The photograph was taken by club member Melony Dawn Crouse for The Lincoln Tribune.


Two photos of the Madison-Derr Furnace by Libby Mize, April 4, 2009


Dandelion at Madison-Derr Furnace by Charles Mize, April 4, 2009


Lincoln Photography Club member Libby Mize won the First Place ribbon in Photography in the Cleveland County Silver Arts competition (open to ages 55 and above in Cleveland, Gaston, and Lincoln counties). She also won one of the three Honorable Mention ribbons.
Lincoln Photography Club member Charles Mize won the Second Place ribbon in the Photography category of Silver Arts, which is the creative and artistic side of N.C. Senior Games. Divisions are Visual Arts, Literary Arts, Heritage Arts, and Performing Arts.


Base of High Falls in Transylvania County by David Hopkins


Upper Creek Falls, northern Burke County, NC, February, 2001 by Jon Arrowood


The Rose Walk at Lake Junaluska, June, 2008, by Libby Mize


The Maid of the Mist from the Canadian side of Niagara Falls, July, 2007, by Charles Frank Mize


Add-on Lens - Some point and shoot digital cameras have a filter thread on the front of the fixed lens that will enable the attachment of an additional lens. Usually wide-angle or telephoto.
AE - Auto Exposure. When the camera is set to this mode, it will automatically set all the required modes for the light conditions. I.e. Shutter speed, aperture and white balance. The 3 types are:
Program Mode. The camera will choose the shutter speed and aperture automatically, effectively making your SLR a "point-and-shoot". It will normally assign a shutter speed of 60th of a second or higher if possible.
Aperture Priority. You choose the aperture setting and the camera will automatically choose the shutter speed according to the lighting conditions. Best setting for controlling the depth of field.
Shutter Priority. You choose the shutter speed and the camera will select the correct aperture as long as there is enough light. Good for sports or action photography where you need control over the shutter speeds.
AE Lock. This enables you to lock the current exposure reading and re-frame the shot using the same setting. A half-press of the shutter is normally required to activate this function, fully pressing only when you want to capture the image.
AF. Auto Focus. All digital cameras and most modern SLR lenses have this function now. The lens automatically focuses on the subject as quick as the eye. The only difference is that with an SLR you can normally select manual focus if necessary.
Aliasing. This is an effect caused by sampling an image at to low a rate. It causes rapid change (high texture) areas of an image to appear as a slow change in the sample image. Once this has happened, it is extremely difficult to reproduce the original image from the sample.
Angle of View. This is calculated by the focal length of the lens and the size of the image sensor. The 35mm equivalents differ according to the sensor size.
Anti aliasing. This is the process whereby you can reduce the "Stepping" effect on your images, by smoothing the edges where individual edges are visible. A great program for correcting this is Genuine Fractals by LizardTech. It is a plug-in for Photoshop.
Aperture. The lens opening that allows more, or less light onto the sensor formed by a diaphragm inside the actual lens.
Aperture Priority AE. When using this mode, the user selects the aperture giving control over the Depth of Field. A large aperture letting more light in gives a small depth of field, meaning not much will be in focus. Whereas a small aperture, not letting much light in, will give a greater depth of field or more will be in focus from the front to back of the image.

Archive. A collection of data in long term storage, usually the hard drive on your PC or an external hard drive.
Aspect Ratio. The ration of horizontal to vertical dimensions of an image. For example, 35mm slide film = 3:2, TV = 4:3, HDTV = 16:9, 4x5 Film = 5:4.

Aspherical Lens. A lens with edges flattened so that it is not a perfect sphere. These produce a much superior image.

Automatic Exposure. The camera sets the shutter speed and aperture for the correct exposure according to the light.
Automatic Focus. The lens on the camera focuses automatically when the shutter is half pressed. The viewfinder normally has focussing points shown to assist the user in knowing what will be in focus.

AWB. Automatic White Balance. Most digital cameras have this feature where the camera sets the white balance. Override is available in most DSLR's.


B & W . Abbreviation for Black and White.
Back Lit. Meaning the subject is lit from behind which can cause underexposing. Is also used for portrait photography for special effects and bringing catchlights to the hair.
Backlight. The illumination for a color LCD display on digital cameras or phones.
Banding. An artefact of color gradation in computer imaging. When graduated colors break into larger blocks of a single color, the smooth look of a proper gradation is reduced.
Barrel Distortion. A common geometric lens distortion causing an aquired image to pucker towards the centre and be rounded along the outer edges.
Bit. The smallest unit of memory. The word comes from binary and digit or 1 and 0. Also sometimes known as on and offs.
Bit Depth. Refers to the color or grey scale of each individual pixel. For example a pixel with 8 bits per color (red, green and blue), gives a 24 bit image. 24 bit resolution is 16.7 million colors.
Bitmap. The method of storing information that actually maps an image pixel bit by bit. Formats include; .bmp, .pcx, .pict, .tif, .tiff, .gif. Most picture files are bit-mapped.
Blooming. An effect caused by overexposing a CCD or sensor to too much light. This can cause distortions of the subject and/or color.
BMP. Bitmapped graphics file format which is popular with Windows PC's. It is an uncompressed file format like a TIFF.
Borderless. Quite simply, this means a printed photograph with no border around it.

Bracketing. Can apply to flash or exposure. It is used to create usually 3 photographs. One photo is exposed by the cameras meter automatically, one under exposed and one overexposed by a predetermined number of stops. Also "exposure bracketing".
Brightness. Value of a pixel in a digital image giving its value of lightness from black to white, with o being black and 255 being white.
Buffer. Temporary storage areas held in your camera or computers RAM. This acts as a temporary holding area for data that will be manipulated by the CPU before saving it to another device. For example if you are shooting in continuous mode, when the RAM buffer on your digital camera is full it will slow to a much slower rate while the buffer empties to your compact flash card or other device.
Bulb. Term used for a long exposure setting normally more than 30 seconds. The start of the exposure is made by pressing the shutter, only ending when the shutter button is released. Excellent for night photography and a remote release is recommended to prevent camera shake as you press the shutter button.

Burst Mode. Also know as continuous mode or "Auto wind" on older SLR's. However, today's Digital SLR's have bust modes of up to 8 frames per second. Great for sports and action shots.

Byte. A collection of 8-bits of memory in a computer. I.e. 8 bits is a Byte, 1000 bytes is a Kilobyte (KB) or 8000 bytes, 1000Kb is a Megabyte (MB) or 8,000,000 bytes and so on.


Calibration. The act of adjusting the color of one device to match that of another. For example when you match the calibration of your screen to that of your printer to ensure what you see is what you print. It is also used in the film SLR's Canon EOS-3 and EOS 5 which have eye-controlled focussing. You calibrate the cameras focussing to where your eye is looking in the viewfinder. (Some fighter planes also have this. The missile follows the trajectory of the pilot's eye).
Card Reader. Used for transferring data from your flash memory card to your PC. A better way of transferring your image files than connecting the camera to your PC. Sometimes the cameras circuitry can become corrupt. Better to fry a memory card than your camera.
CCD (Charged Coupled Device). This is a light sensitive chip used in your digital camera for image gathering. The CCD Pixels gather the color from the light and pass it to the shift register for storage. CCD's are analogue sensors, the digitising occurs when the electrons are passed through the A to D converter. This "Analogue to Digital" converter converts the analogue signal to a digital file or signal.
Centre -Weighted. Term used to describe an automatic exposure system that uses just the centre portion of the image to adjust the overall value. So in effect, the exposure will be weighted to what you see towards the centre of your viewfinder.
CF. Compact Flash card. Used in your digital camera to record images. Storage space ranges from 16MB up to 12GB. A company in Japan is currently developing a CF card that will store 2TB of information or 2,000 Megabytes.
One piece of information stored with an image. For example, a true color image has 3 channels, red, green and blue.
Chroma. The color of an image element or pixel. A chroma is made up of saturation plus the hue values, but is separate from the luminance value.
Chromatic Aberration. Also known as purple fringing. It is fairly common in 2MP digital cameras and above, especially if they have long telephoto lenses. You can see it when a dark area is surrounded by a highlight. In between the dark and light, you may see a band of purple pixels that shouldn't be there. There are ways of removing this which I have covered in the Photoshop section.
CMOS. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (now you can see why it is abbreviated) - Another imaging system used by digital cameras. These produce lower amounts of power consumption, but are not as popular as the CCD sensors used in most digital SLR's
CMS. Color management system. A software program designed to ensure color matching and calibration between video and/or computer monitors and any form of hard copy output.
CMYK. Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and BlacK. Colors used by most printers to produce your prints. Color shifts can be caused when the color management system tries to convert your PC's RGB files to CMYK. Before printing, try converting your images to CMYK and see what the difference is.
Color Balance. The accuracy with which the colors captured in the image, match the original scene.
Color Cast. This is a very unwanted tint of one color in an image caused by the wrong amount of Cyan, Magenta and Yellow. It can be corrected using your editing software.
Color Correction. To correct or enhance the colors within an image.
Color Depth. Digital Images can approximate color realism but the process is referred to as color depth, bit depth or pixel depth. Most modern computer displays use 24 bit true color. It displays the same number of colors that the human eye can discern, about 16 million.
Color Space. Digital cameras use known color profiles to generate their images. The most common is sRGB or Adobe RGB. This along with all of the other camera data is stored in the Exif header of the Jpeg file. The color space information ensures that graphic programs and printers have a reference to the color profile that the camera used at the time of taking the exposure.
Compact Flash. See CF. This is the most commonly used type of memory. It is small, removable and available in a wide range of sizes up to 12GB.
Compression. A Digital photograph creates an image file that is enormous. To enable image files to become smaller and more manageable cameras employ some form of compression such as JPEG. RAW and TIFF files have no compression and take up more space.
Continuous Autofocus. As it says. The auto focus system is continuously working on focussing on the subject.
Contrast. The measure of rate of change of brightness in an image.
CRW. The RAW CCD file format used by Canon Digital Cameras. Comes from Canon RAW.


Dark Frame. A noise reduction process where a camera takes a second exposure of a black frame after the camera takes a long exposure image. The image noise is easily identified in the black frame shot and is then electronically removed from the actual image. This helps to reduce the amount of hot pixels that normally show up in long exposure shots from digital cameras.
Decompression. Process by which the full data content of a compressed file is restored.
Dedicated Flash. An Electronic Flash Unit that is made to be used directly with a specific make or model of a camera. Canon, Nikon Minolta and Olympus for example, all have electrical contacts in the hotshoe which passes TTL (through the lens) metering and AF range information to and from the flash unit or speedlight. You cannot interchange flash units and cameras. I.e. a Nikon speedlight on a Canon camera.
Depth of Field. (DOF). The range of items in focus in an image. This is controlled by the focal length and aperture opening of a lens. A large or wide aperture gives a shallow depth of field (not much range in focus) and a smaller or narrow aperture give a large depth of field (more range in focus).
Digital Film. Quite simply that. Solid state flash memory cards in place of emulsion film.
Digital Zoom. A digital magnification of the centre 50% of an image. These give less than sharp images because the new zoomed image has been interpolated. Don't be swayed by the incredible 500% zooms on some cameras, the images won't be really acceptable. The optical zoom gives much more clarity to an image.
Digitisation. The process of converting analogue information into digital for use by a computer.
Dioptre Adjustment. This adjusts the optical viewfinder's magnification factor to suit the eyesight of the cameras user. There should be a knob or dial near the viewfinders eyepiece, however, not all cameras have this feature.
DOF. Abbreviation of Depth of Field.
Download. Term used for the transference of image data from the camera to your computer. Can be done via a serial port or the faster USB port. Downloads can also be done via Bluetooth or Infra-red without the need for cables.
DPI. Dots per Inch. This is a measurement value used to describe the resolution of a display screen or that of a printer
DPOF. Digital Print Order Format. This allows you to embed printing information on your memory card. You just select the photographs that you want printed and how many prints to be made. Some photo printers such as Pictbridge use this information at print time.
DSLR. Digital Single Lens Reflex (SLR). Camera with interchangeable lens.
Dye Sub. Dye sublimination is a printing process where the color dyes are thermally transferred to the printing media. The printers use CMYK color format. The paper is run in and out of the printer 4 times, once for each color (C, M and Y) and a fourth time when a protective overcoat is applied. Dye sub is continuous tone printing, it prints tiny square dots each of which is denser in the centre and lighter on the edges. The dyes are transparent so different colored dots can be printed on top of each other to form any one of 16 million colors.
Dynamic Range. This is a measurement of the accuracy of an image in color or grey level. More bits of dynamic range results in much finer gradations being preserved.